Let’s take a trip way back and take a look at how far we’ve come. A Short History of Leadership Theory Paperback – January 1, 1986 by J. Robert Clinton (Author) 3.0 out of 5 stars 1 rating. Leadership obviously is not a simple trait but rather a complex of main traits fashioned together as a unity. (This slide/page and subsequent slide/pages are drawn directly from Rost’s excellent summary and critique of the history of leadership studies, theories, and definitions.) Environmental factors dictate which of the leadership behaviors above will be most effective, and the subordinate factors dictate how those leadership behaviors are interpreted. We know that traits and behaviors both have an impact on a leader’s success, but what about situation? 0000022200 00000 n He took this as evidence of the inheritance of abilities. 0000019802 00000 n  “Leadership is a process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal” (Northouse, 2012). Three contingency leadership theories appear more prominently in recent years: Fiedler contingency model, Vroom-Yetton decision model, and the path-goal theory. The right to rule was derived directly from the will of God. 0000006500 00000 n behaviourist theories, situational leadership, contingency theory and on to transactional and transformational leadership. 0000003361 00000 n 0000005850 00000 n Carlyle suggested that these great men shaped history through these personal attributes and, yes, divine inspiration, too. Or a leader can be informal, someone who steps up and provides that guidance from within a group of people, not necessarily the person who has been given decision making authority. 0000004050 00000 n 0000008482 00000 n From the Great Man Theory of the 19th century, to new research on genetic factors underpinning leadership behaviours, there’s a wealth of data to examine. The behavioral approach suggests that leaders can be trained. [7] These individuals make up an “in-group” and are more likely to receive attention from the leader. A Brief History of Leadership Dr. Kathleen E. Allen Allen and Associates keallen1@charter.net. Consequently, in the 50’s and 60’s Stogdill and others tried to conceptualize leadership as behavior, but could not isolate key behavioral patterns that made a difference. They took a personal interest in the needs of employees and embraced individual differences among members. In the Path-Goal theory, it’s the leader’s job to assist followers in attaining their goals and to provide the necessary direction and/or support to ensure their goals are compatible with the overall objectives of the group or organization. For instance, a CEO might want to acquire a new company for a conglomerate. 0000025779 00000 n Introduction Periodically, the subject of leadership attracts massive interest and attention. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Trait Theory of Leadership: In the 1940s, most early leadership studies concentrated on trying to determine the traits of a leader. 0000006384 00000 n xref In 1964, researchers Robert Blake and Jane Moutin introduced their managerial grid as a graphic portrayal of a two-dimensional view of leadership.[3]. 0000001320 00000 n They labeled them employee-oriented and production oriented. The trait approach wasn’t done—it just took a break. ), Those are some fairly basic concepts about leaders and leadership. Traits do a better job of predicting the emergence of leaders and the appearance of leadership than they do distinguishing between effective and ineffective leadership. A leader may be considered a leader because of a formal relationship, provided by the possession of managerial rank in an organization. In reality as well as in practice, many have tried to define what detaches authentic leaders from the mass! “Leadership Practices in Relation to Productivity and Morale,”, Ekvall, G and J. Arvonen, “Change-Centered Leadership: An Extension of the Two-Dimensional Model,”. Let’s head back to the 1940s, around the time that Stogdill sent leadership studies off in a different direction, and look at the emergence of a few different instances of behavioral leadership research. A short history of leadership theories By Gene Early Our world is changing and so is our understanding of leadership. Telling style works best for leading employees at the M1 level (low competence, low commitment). traits, behaviour and situation. Researcher Steven J. Zaccaro pointed out that, even in Stogdill’s argument against traits, his studies contained conclusions suggesting that individual differences can still predict leader effectiveness. Is nature or nurture the more important factor in determining leadership? This is the contingency approach. Fiedler then started comparing task-oriented and relationship-oriented leaders and their performances, based on the twenty-four possible combinations of the situations above, and this was the result: Fiedler concluded that task oriented leaders tended to perform better when situations were very favorable or very unfavorable to them. Two other models have emerged in recent trait leadership studies. Some of these heroes were mythological, like Odysseus, descendant of the gods and hero of the Trojan War, and others, like Alexander the Great and Hannibal Barca, earned their distinction in battles won against nearly insurmountable odds, immortalized in stories retold over generations. This assumption that leadership depends on the qualities of the leader makes trait theories seem similar to great man theories but trait theories differ because they do not assume that leadership is limited to a few heroic men (Judge et al, 2002). Like the Ohio State and University of Michigan studies, Blake and Mouton concentrated on concern for production and concern for people. [9] He paired with Phillip Yetton to create a leader-participation model, and then with Arthur Jago to create a revised one. History Created December 10, 2009; 2 revisions; Download catalog record: RDF / JSON. There’s so much written about leadership, Jennifer said, that it can be intimidating. More recently, Fiedler and an associate, Joe Garcia, reconceptualized Fiedler’s original theory, this time focusing on the role of stress as a form of situational unfavorableness and how a leader’s intelligence and experience influence his or her reaction to it.[6]. H‰\Ô͎›0à=OáåÌbDÀ××AB‘2™Ž”EÔL€€“"5€YäíëÃA“ª‘Žæ~\§»ýÛ¾k'“þûú&sj»f×þ6ÖÁùí’,7M[OËhþ­/Ր¤qòá~Âeߝú¤,Mú3ž¼NãÝ. Plato, Plutarch, Lao-Tzu and even Machiavelli had an impact on how these rulers and heroes were defined in their instruction and shared opinions of what it meant to be a leader. Galton hypothesized that there would be a higher percentage of “eminent” men in their lineage than in the general population. Fred Fiedler developed the first comprehensive contingency model for leadership and proposed that effective group performance depended on a solid match between the leader’s style and the degree to which the situation gives control to the leader.[5]. Of course, they didn’t use the word “leader.” The word “leader” as we use it today didn’t come into the English language until the 19th century. startxref Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh. 339 0 obj <>stream Vroom, Victor H.; Yetton, Phillip W. (1973). This led to several theories on isolating key situational variables, and we’ll look at a few of those now. 0000021824 00000 n The implications for this idea are pretty big. From the Great Man Theory of the 19th century, to new research on genetic factors underpinning leadership behaviours, there’s a wealth of data to examine. Are great leader defined by their accomplishments? 0000002116 00000 n Very few people with lower status had the opportunity to lead, and this contributed to the idea that these leadership qualities were something one was born with. Other followers fall into the “out-group.”. These great men were identified by their charisma, intelligence, and wisdom. Buy A Short History of Leadership Theory by Clinton, J. Robert (ISBN: 9781932814187) from Amazon's Book Store. From the turn of the century until the 1940s, most leadership studies focused on the personality traits of individuals that made them leaders and not followers. endstream endobj 338 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/Index[30 275]/Length 31/Size 305/Type/XRef/W[1 1 1]>>stream Let’s take a look at the behavioral approach to leadership next. LPCs respondents that described their least preferred coworker in relatively positive terms, it stood to reason that the leader employed a relationship based approach. After all, it seems as if, when we faced some of our most difficult moments in history, a man emerged to lead us successfully through it. Related: How Team Leaders Use Software for Better Results In Review – Top 5 Leadership Theories. This theory is garnering solid research support. In 1948, after years of experiments and studies, researcher Ralph Stogdill determined that leadership exists between persons in a social situation, and that persons who are leaders in one situation may not necessarily be leaders in other situations (Stogdill, 1948). They’d be more successful with an achievement-oriented leader. If the answer isn’t in the traits a leader exhibits, perhaps it lies in what a leader does. So, if studying leadership traits isn’t useful, why are we talking about it? They organize and define the task so that followers can achieve the goal. The Great Man Theory was a predecessor of the Early Trait Theory stage of leadership research. Historically, in western civilization, we’ve struggled to answer these questions, and in the next few sections we’ll give you enough information that you can start contemplating these issues along with us. (As we’ll discuss later in this module, not every leader is a manager and not every manager is a leader.) The failure of researchers to arrive at any consistent results around leadership in the mid-twentieth center led to the study of situational influence. Leadership Management: Principles, Models and Theories 313 KNOW human nature. 0000002884 00000 n Theories of all sorts of things started developing. The term “situational leadership” is most commonly derived from and connected with Paul Hersey and Ken Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory. The production-oriented leaders tended to emphasize the technical or task aspects of the job. Selling style works best for leading employees at the M2 level (low competence, high commitment). KNOW your job. 0000023815 00000 n Either way, he was the chosen one, he possessed a certain something, and, by divine right, he became the king of Britain. As they started to realize that a certain style and set of skills was appropriate for one situation and failed in another, they sought to determine which conditions matched which styles and skills. The focus of the traits leadership theory was based on the study of traits of effective leaders. Historically speaking, it’s been quite a ride. (And since he lived in Scotland in the 1840s, there was no mention of women.). Researchers were trying to answer the question if leaders have certain traits that differentiate them from non-leaders. The existence of Abraham Lincoln, Theodore Roosevelt, and others like them only seemed to prove the theory. <]/Prev 51359/XRefStm 1320>> See all formats and editions Hide other formats and editions. Francis Galton, an English scientist and researcher, wrote a book Hereditary Genius in 1869, which was the first social scientific attempt to study genius and greatness (Galton, 1869). Remember that Cowley wrote that traits collectively lent themselves to leadership effectiveness. A leader’s behaviour varies as per the situation. 0000001661 00000 n 1.… The least preferred coworker asked leaders to react to sixteen sets of contrasting adjectives that would describe their least preferred coworker. What exactly makes a great leader? It’s worth noting that about sixteen percent of those taking the evaluation scored right in the middle and fall outside the predictions of this theory. 0000001502 00000 n The University of Michigan team also came up with two dimensions of leadership behavior. Leadership theories is the place to start to gain an understanding of what leadership means. April 28, 2010: … Price New from Used from Paperback "Please retry" $8.00 . Those are some fairly basic concepts about leaders and leadership. By adopting this style leader first diagnose the needs of the followers and then use specific style to cope with them to achieve specific objectives. Early concepts of monarchy included the element that king was a divine choice and was bound to no earthly rules. We’re going to fast forward a few years to the 1990s, when Scandinavian researchers Ekvall and Arvonen began to reassess the idea that there were only two dimensions that captured the essence of leadership behavior. Extensive research showed that leaders who rated high in both initiation of structure and consideration (a “high-high”) were more likely to achieve high employee performance and satisfaction more frequently than those that scored high in only one of the two categories, or low in both categories. endstream endobj 306 0 obj <>/Metadata 28 0 R/Pages 27 0 R/StructTreeRoot 30 0 R/Type/Catalog/ViewerPreferences<>>> endobj 307 0 obj <>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/XObject<>>>/Rotate 0/StructParents 0/TrimBox[0.0 0.0 595.276 841.89]/Type/Page>> endobj 308 0 obj <> endobj 309 0 obj <> endobj 310 0 obj <> endobj 311 0 obj <> endobj 312 0 obj <> endobj 313 0 obj <> endobj 314 0 obj <> endobj 315 0 obj <>stream A leader may be considered a leader because of a formal relationship, provided by the possession of managerial rank in an organization. In their review of the Ohio State studies, Ekvall and Arvonen found that the researchers had identified behaviors such as “pushes new ways of doing things” and “encourages employees to do new things,” but those items didn’t explain much about leadership in 1940s, when those behaviors didn’t have as great an impact. 0000001015 00000 n Those that described their least favorite coworker unfavorably were deemed to be more task oriented. hÞb```b``õa`e`ààeàg@ ~6 æxÁÀÒ°æœ@è-…Sn­Ú…PØ®àäÅs¹UeÁ1™F>“ /žÄ½EOþH0SLlüØ®àÑVÊÑÀÀ (Ñ eA†0lˆ00ÌeÒò@¬±càåñbªüÈÐp%‰CèD2óæä‰by¤ œJü*XJ˜yl(p°X00|嬰õúsªÃ²‰@h2ßo¸dŽ?Ҍ@¼ À Ç6­ trailer But traits based on his 2004 model include extraversion, agreeableness, openness, neuroticism, creativity, and others. This marked the end of researchers’ tenacious ideas that individual differences characterized leadership, or that they’d be able to predict leadership effectiveness. There’d be very few leaders among us today if we relied on a pulling-sword-from-stone selection process. 0000014757 00000 n Circumstances might lead to peers and followers shunning a particular leader, and then seeing him or her in a different way later on. However, “high-high” scoring did not always result in positive consequences. The Leader Trait Emergency Effectiveness Model, created by researcher Timothy Judge and colleagues, combines behavioral genetics and evolutionary psychology theories of how traits are developed and puts them into a model that attempts to explain leader emergence and effectiveness. Would Franklin Delano Roosevelt have been as successful leading the nation through the Revolutionary or the Civil Wars? His testing (for which he invented methods of historiometry) showed that numbers of eminent relatives dropped off when going from first degree to second degree relatives, and from second to third. 0000023513 00000 n Twelve percent of all the research published on the topic of leadership between 1990 and 2004 contains the keywords “personality” and “leadership.” Interest persists, and new information has been uncovered. Thomas Carlyle set the stage for the great man theory, and other researchers followed suit, trying to determine what kind of traits made a great leader great. This model comes with a list of leader traits, which Zaccaro reminds us are always not exhaustive. Still, it’s often difficult in practice to determine the quality of leader-member relations, the structure of task and how much position power the leader possesses. Their studies indicate that just concentrating on two different dimensions of behavior may not be adequate to capture leadership in the twenty-first century. Relationship oriented leaders perform better when situations are moderately favorable. In 1860, Herbert Spencer, an English philoso… Even though every member of the orchestra can play perfectly by themselves, they will only produce an incompatible melody in the absence of a conductor. The environmental factors are beyond followers’ control, and the subordinate factors are, obviously within their control. Years ago the evidence suggested otherwise, but the presence of proper framework for classifying and organizing traits now help us understand this better. Do certain personality traitsmake people better suited to leadership roles, or do characteristics of the situation make it more likely that certain people will take charge? Or a leader can be informal, someone who steps up and provides that guidance from within a group of people, not necessarily the person who has been given decision making authority. Behavioral theories of leadership suggest that specific behaviors differentiate leaders from nonleaders. The premise of the Trait-Leadership Model (Zaccaro, Kemp, Bader, 2004) is that (a) leadership emerges from the combined influence of multiple traits (integrated, rather than individual, traits) and (b) leader traits differ in their proximal influence on leadership. But we want to leave you with two thoughts on the trait approach before we move on: Stogdill’s comments encouraged researchers to look in other directions back in the late 1940s. Kenneth Blanchard and Paul Hersey’s theory of situational leadership is basically comprise of three dimensions; two about the leaders and one about followers. Studies were completed to determine the relation between individual traits and measures of leadership effectiveness. In Carlyle’s book On Heroes, Hero-Worship and the Heroic in Society (Carlyle, 1840), the author dove into the lives of several men he deemed “heroes,” like Muhammed, Richard Wagner, Shakespeare, Martin Luther, and Napoleon. He determined to measure the leader’s propensity to one trait or another by developing the least preferred coworker questionnaire (LPC). Leadership Theory Paper Leadership Theories During this course, the focus has been on leadership and the different theories of leadership. The trait approach can help you pick out a leader, or predict that an individual might step up to leadership. "Path-goal theory of leadership". Think about how media describes business leaders like Mary Barra and Bill Gates. Taking a page from this book, Zaccaro and colleagues developed the trait-leadership model that attempted to address traits and their influence on a leader’s effectiveness. Or, more likely, we’d watch the process unfold and then say, “Hey, nice trick, but why should I listen to you?” Concepts in leadership have changed since the sixth century. This approach to leadership suggests the need to match two key elements appropriately: the leader’s leadership style and the followers’ maturity or preparedness levels. In spite of the increased focus of researchers on trait theory, it remains among the more criticized theories of leadership. The Great Man theory evolved around the mid 19th century. Examples: be proficient and be able to train others in their tasks. theories—and there are almost as many theories of leadership as there are psychologists working in the field” (p. 1). Those leaders that are concerned with the task are engaging in behaviors called initiation of structure. Would Ralph Nader have been as successful a consumer activist if he’d been in Nicaragua and not the United States? Since the 1960s, the guiding light for research has been the assumption that what makes a leader great depends on the situation. There is of course, a much broader and diverse history of leaders across the world not mentioned here.). The theory identifies four main leadership approaches: In addition to these four approaches to leadership, there are also four levels of follower maturity: In Hersey and Blanchard’s approach, the key to successful leadership is matching the proper leadership style to the corresponding maturity level of the employees. Theories: • System theory, institutional theory, discourse analysis, social identity theory, etc. 0000004147 00000 n A short history of leadership theories By Gene Early Our world is changing and so is our understanding of leadership. A leader is crucial to the success of every team. But don’t worry, that doesn’t mean we’ve wasted our time! The leader-member exchange theory considers leaders relationships with people, and proposed that, because of time constraints, leaders establish relationships with a small group of their followers. At the turn of the twentieth century, we were starting to understand the nuances of management and what it meant to be more strategic in leading. He went on to study twins and adopted children, testing the “nature vs. nurture” term that he’d coined, but never strayed too far from the idea that qualities were inherited instead of taught. Lists containing this Book. Others criticize that it studies leadership effectiveness as it’s perceived by followers, rather than actual leadership effectiveness. The Fiedler contingency model bases the leader's effectiveness on what Fred Fiedler called situational contingency. Think about it. And in the July, 1928 issue of The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, researcher W.H. Those leaders that scored high in initiation of structure often experienced higher levels of grievances, absenteeism and turnover. Traits can predict leadership. Here are six of the major moves in this field of study. But none of these consider situation as a factor. Historical Study of Leadership Theories 49 1. [8] Developed by Robert House, he determined that there were four types of leaders that played into this theory: The factors are environmental (task structure, formal authority system, work group) and subordinate (locus of control, experience, perceived ability). Cowley wrote, The approach to the study of leadership usually has been and perhaps always must be through the study of traits. The internet is the natural progression of this, sometimes with less study and more publishing. The University of Michigan team concluded that employee-oriented leaders were associated with higher group productivity and higher job satisfaction, and production-oriented leaders tended to score low in both those areas. Their main concern was accomplishing objectives and the group members were just a means to reach that goal. In the United States, we were well into the experience of our industrial revolution, and it was clear that leaders weren’t just heroes and rulers. So the rest of our discussion concentrates on that 84% of respondents that took one side or the other. Evolution of Leadership Theories Author University Leadership is, and always has been, a vital aspect of social and economic constructs. hÞbb’``b``Ń3Î ƒÑøŠ À Á[ Even though no one was able to identify with any scientific certainty, which human characteristic or combination of, were responsible for identifying great leaders. Foundations always matter, so begin by thinking about the way leadership ideas and models have developed. Those situations were. Research testing the leader-member exchange theory has been generally supportive and provides evidence that leaders do differentiate among followers, that these disparities aren’t random, and that the individuals in the “in-group” will perform better, have lower turnover, etc. House, Robert J.; Mitchell, T.R. Are leaders defined by the appraisal of their followers? To support this theory of leadership various models were developed, and multiple studies were conducted in this direction. How did we arrive at what we understand about leadership today? 0 The actor Analytical perspective: • Actors (which also determine leadership behavior) Focus: • Groups, coalitions, leaders (roles and positions) Theories: • Rational choice theory, cognitive theories, information Fiedler then modified his conclusions to state that task oriented leaders performed better in situations of high or low control, while relationship oriented leaders performed better in situations of moderate control. Leadership study started in the middle of the 19th century. Surely, anyone who knew the legend of King Arthur understood that it helped illustrate the concept that those who led were born and not made. Theories of Leadership: Top 4 Theories of Leadership Theory of Leadership # 1. 0000025032 00000 n Some argue it’s too simplistic. 0000024162 00000 n Thoughts about how leadership is defined, the characteristics of effective leaders, and accepted leadership philosophies have evolved with every passing decade. Take an orchestra, for instance, one that consists of all the best musicians in the world but lacks a conductor. As you might guess, even Galton recognized the limitations of these studies. To determine if human ability was hereditary, he chose “eminent” men (men who exhibited extraordinary leadership qualities) and counted the relatives to see how many additional “eminent” men were in their background. The revised model , the more widely accepted of the two, provides a set of rules to determine the form and amount of participative decision making in different situations. None of these behavioral theories could clarify these situational differences. As interest in the psychology of leadership has increased over the last 100 years, a number of different leadership theories have been introduced to explain exactly how and why certain people become great leaders. If it’s not the personality traits that predict effective leadership, perhaps it’s the behavior of those leaders we should be studying. When we look at the l… Most versions tell either of how Arthur became king when the Lady of the Lake gave him a sword called Excalibur, or of how he was the only one capable of pulling the sword from a stone. But we have to acknowledge here that this wasn’t the end of studying traits in leadership. Those behaviors were task focused and people focused. How the leader chooses the “in-group” is somewhat unclear, but it’s assumed that the leader chooses the individuals based on their similarities to his or her own characteristics, or because of their higher competence levels. In fact, there are 12 contingency variables, 8 problem types, and 5 leadership styles to be considered in the process, and that’s part of what makes the model difficult for managers to use. 0000005392 00000 n There are a few different varieties of King Arthur’s story, one of the most prominent folklore stories from England. 0000000016 00000 n Those that were not kings were instead heroes, possessors of God-given skills that helped them achieve victory in battle. Alternatively, consideration is a leadership behavior aimed at creating mutual trust and respect with their followers. Loading Related Books. The history of leadership theory is a fascinating story of evolving views on the nature of human behaviour and the ways individuals acquire power and influence in the workplace. Also, during the job search process, interviewers may assess your leadership potential, so it can be helpful to understand your preferred leadership practice. (Note: this text will focus on the history of European and North American history, since we’re addressing a largely US-based audience. A second model, the Integrated Model of Leader Traits, Behaviors, and Effectiveness, created by D. S. Derue and colleagues, combines traits and behaviors in predicting leader effectiveness and tested the mediation effect of leader behaviors on the relationship between leader traits and effectiveness. Beyond the complexity of the model, this model doesn’t take stress, intelligence and experience into consideration as important variables. Even in this absence of universal agreement, a broad definition of leadership is required before introducing the construct as a domain of scholarly inquiry. Victor Vroom, the researcher who developed the expectancy framework by which we compared motivational approaches, also has things to say about leadership. Examples: Human needs, emotions, and how people respond to stress. They scored each of those areas on a scale of 1 (low) to 9 (high) to create 81 different positions in which the leader’s style might fall. Everyone recognized that just as the name suggests; only a man could have the characteristic (s) of a great leader. In fact, the one thing that researchers seem to agree on regarding leadership is that they don’t always agree. From the Great Man Theory of the 19th century, to new research on genetic factors underpinning leadership behaviours, there’s a wealth of data to examine. Well, surprisingly, interest in the topic continues, supported by media and general public opinion. For decades leadership theories have been the source of numerous studies. Research supports this theory. Studies at University of Michigan were conducted around the same time the Ohio State research was going on, and they had similar research objectives. At a few different varieties of King Arthur ’ s success, but the presence of framework... 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